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In the Salviati Chapel Figs. The dadoes under the column bases are enlivened by colored marble panels. The aedicula in each case is flanked by statues of saints in roundheaded niches, and the whole wall is enclosed by colossal composite pilasters, with an entablature above running around the three walls of the chapel.

Angels recline on the segmental.

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The aediculae in the chapel, instead of projecting like porticoes, as in the Altar of Liberty, are set back against the wall with minimal projection. While the pediments have a break at the peak, the moldings are not otherwise interrupted, as they are in the Altar of Liberty, by an entirely different motif.

Giambologna's own burial chapel, the Soccorso Chapel Figs. Probably all the aediculae in the Grimaldi Chapel resembled the one on the altar wall of the Salviati Chapel, with its segmental pediment. The posture of the angels Figs. Grimaldi Chapel suggests this, corresponding as it does to that of the angels on the Altar of Liberty and on the Salviati altar wall. In a drawing of a proposed design for the altar wall of the Salviati Chapel Fig. The sumptuousness of the Grimaldi Chapel would have been enhanced by colored marble panels set not only into the walls above the Virtue stat-.

Above, the three walls would have been tied together by a continuous entablature. In sum, the only significant differences in architectural design be-. Otherwise, the combination of paintings framed by aediculae and niches with sculpture was probably similar. Although the Salviati Chapel must be the principal guide to a reconstruction of the Grimaldi, there are other, more general, precedents. The idea of combining painting and niches with sculpture in one chapel, as was done in both the Salviati and Grimaldi chapels, developed in the sixteenth century.

Giambologna would have been familiar with such combinations in both Rome and Florence. Shaped like a deep niche, the Del Monte has over the altar one large painting framed by an aedicula with a segmental pediment and flanked by Virtues, each in a niche. In Florence, when he was still struggling to make a name for himself in the s, Giambologna was involved in sculpture for the Chapel of San Luca in Santissima Annunziata. This elaborate chapel begun ; Fig. Here, on the lateral walls, in a tripartite architectural framework, four Virtues Faith, Hope, Charity, and Prudence in niches flank paintings that simulate sarcophagi surmounted by seated effigies of the patrons.

A relief is located above each niche; covering the entire. Another influential factor must have been the involvement of Luca Cambiaso, who witnessed the Grimaldi contract, probably helped in its planning, and had worked in the Lercari Chapel.

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A final clue to the broad articulation of the Grimaldi Chapel walls is found in other sumptuous family chapels built by wealthy Genoese in emulation of the Grimaldi. Like the Grimaldi Chapel, the Senarega and the chapels in San Pietro are located in the most prestigious parts of the church, flanking the main altar.

Even if there are differences in emphasis and detail, the general articulation of the walls of these chapels is similar to that of the Grimaldi, with the. The use of bronze for the statutes and reliefs, however, is unique to the Grimaldi. These later chapels surely reflect the Grimaldi Chapel and confirm its appearance but add no new information to what has been already gathered from other sources. Several crucial points relating to the chapel's decorative components emerge from a careful reading of the contract and subsequent guide-books.

In addition to the six Virtues and Passion reliefs, already mentioned, the contract specifies six bronze angels, a pair over the central image of each wall of the chapel. Two of these images were to be painted panels; the medium for the third was not given. In Soprani's. But apparently who was to paint them was decided only after the contract was signed, because they are not specifically assigned; furthermore, by Cambiaso had left Genoa to work at the Escorial in Spain; he died there in Moreover, Lomi was a highly regarded and popular painter, judging by his many commissions in and around Genoa and Padua, mentioned by Soprani.

Ratti's edition of Soprani's book, besides identifying the seventh relief for the Grimaldi Chapel as The Entombment Plate 12; Ratti says it was the altar frontal and stating, "Per l'Altare medesimo ei gitto in bronzo l'Immagine del Crocifisso" For the same altar he cast in bronze the image of the crucifix , [26] also gives the subjects of Aurelio Lomi's two paintings: the Sacrifice of Isaac and Joseph Sold into Egypt. Although the Grimaldi contract specified Prudence as one of the six virtues and Christ before Pilate as one of the six reliefs, Ratti has substituted Temperance for Prudence and Christ Presented to the High Priest for Christ before Pilate.

Prudence was traditionally such an important virtue—the first of the cardinal virtues after the three theological ones, according to Aquinas—that it is hard to imagine that it was entirely eliminated from the Grimaldi program or conflated with Temperance and given a subordinate role with only a compass to indicate its presence. Even though the virtue of temperance became increasingly important from the thirteenth century with the revival of Aristotle's Ethics and its emphasis on the golden mean, prudence continued to have an honored place.

Furthermore, Prudence is depicted with Justice holding the Grimaldi coat of arms on the frontispiece of the published Oratione. Or Prudence could have been represented in the chapel's stuccos. The addition to the chapel after the contract was signed in of the crucifix and The Entombment mentioned by Ratti, as well as the apparent substitution of Temperance for Prudence, may have been prompted by two factors: the probable transfer of relics of the cross and crown of thorns to the chapel after the signing of the contract and the apostolic visitation of the bishop of Novara, Monsignore Francesco Bossio, in As will be discussed in connection with the program of the chapel, the practice of venerating relics was reaffirmed by the Council of Trent.

It was Luca Grimaldi who had the cross and crown of thorns relics placed in the family chapel. He probably added the crucifix and The Entombment relief in response to the visit of Bossio, who specified that there be a bronze or silver cross in every chapel unless the image. In the case of the Grimaldi Chapel the crucifix would have been appropriate, for the chapel itself was dedicated to the holy cross. As concluding scenes for the Passion cycle, already stipulated in the contract, both the crucifix and The Entombment made logical additions.

The original plan provided for paintings without enumerating their subjects. They not only emphasized the chapel's dedication to the holy cross but also focused attention on the act of sacrifice. And Christ's sacrifice on the cross was reenacted with each celebration of the Eucharist.

The visual evidence just reviewed—Giambologna's extant architectural decoration; the precedents of important chapels in Florence, Rome, and Genoa; and the reflections of Giambologna's work in later Genoese chapels—augments the information deduced from the contract and the guidebooks.

This evidence establishes that the Virtues in the Grimaldi Chapel flanked the central image on each wall, whether it was a painting or a sculpture. It also gives a reasonably accurate picture of the aediculae. The location of the Passion reliefs remains to be determined. That the contract specified six Passion reliefs of the same size the seventh being much larger and six Virtues suggests that these works were paired on the three walls of the chapel.

But the location for the Passion reliefs either above or below the Virtue statues must be established. Giambologna's two extant chapels in Florence, the Salviati Chapel Figs. Giambologna placed the six narrative reliefs above the statues of saints in their niches in the Salviati Chapel, where these reliefs have a vertical format, about 1. The height of the Salviati reliefs is one and a half times the width, whereas the proportions of the Grimaldi are the reverse, with the width about one and a half times the height, like the dark marble panels set into the wall beneath the saint statues in the Salviati Chapel.

Because of their size and format the Salviati reliefs had to be placed above, rather than beneath, the saint statues. Giambologna designed them with the viewpoint of the spectator in mind; the ground planes are tipped up and the perspective adjusted for easier viewing. The depth of the relief is also adapted to the viewer, with the heads and upper bodies of the figures sculpted in higher relief whereas the lower bodies are much flatter. Giambologna's manifest concern for the spectator in the Florentine chapel would have been expressed in the Grimaldi Chapel as well.

Fortunately, Giambologna's own burial chapel in Santissima Annunziata helps verify that the reliefs in the Grimaldi Chapel were placed beneath the statues. A set of the six Passion reliefs virtually identical to those mentioned in the Grimaldi contract decorates this chapel. Thus in the Grimaldi Chapel the spectator's viewpoint for the reliefs—in contrast to that for the reliefs in the Salviati Chapel—was calculated at about a foot above eye level approximately five feet, five inches.

From a purely aesthetic point of view, the Grimaldi reliefs could have been placed over the Virtue statues, but then they would have been indecipherable and their entire narrative import would have been lost, an unacceptable solution. The contract for Giambologna's burial chapel, dated , specifically gave the artist a free hand in devising his own program and decoration, as long as his choices did not violate the decrees of the Council of Trent. The location of the Grimaldi reliefs under the Virtue statues would have followed a long-established tradition in painted and sculpted altarpieces of placing narrative scenes below standing figures.

Thus the relationship of the reliefs to the statues above them is the same as that of predella panels to the painted figures of saints above them. Many fifteenth- and sixteenth-century sculpted altarpieces, such as Benedetto da Maiano's Altar of the Annunciation Fig. If Benedetto's altarpiece were dismantled and its statues and narrative scenes reassembled as separate parts on the walls of a chapel, the saints standing in niches above the reliefs, the resulting ensemble would look something like the Grimaldi Chapel. This configuration changes the relationship between the component parts and between those parts and the viewers, who now have a kinesthetic experience.

No longer confined to one spot, as they were while contemplating Benedetto's work, they now feel impelled to move around the chapel, interacting as participants in the Passion narrative and responding actively to the Virtues. Concurrently, the space of the chapel is activated; sculpture, viewers, and space are interdependent parts of one complex. Because the Grimaldi Chapel was a family funeral chapel, any recreation of the setting must account for the location of sarcophagi and the altar.

Luca Grimaldi's will, dated 5 June , three days before his death, gives only the instruction that he be buried in his chapel, the Chapel of the Holy Cross, in San Francesco di Castelletto. Francesco" Luca Grimaldi, son of Francesco, was buried in his most splendid and royal chapel in the Church of San Francesco.

Sarcophagi are found in crypts as well as attached to chapel walls. A major chapel like the Grimaldi often had a crypt, used for both relics and sarcophagi. To accommodate the wall sarcophagus in the Soccorso, the painting above was made smaller than the two paintings on the side.

And in the Grimaldi Chapel, as in the Soccorso, according to what we can surmise from Soprani and Ratti, a crucifix hung in the place of honor over the altar. Visual considerations favor an island altar for the Grimaldi Chapel, similar to that in the Soccorso. Two statues in niches and an aedicula and pediment with bronze angels almost certainly made up the altar wall; the missing bronze statue of Luca Grimaldi was also probably located there.

An altar attached to the wall would have required a truncated aedicula, thus distorting its proportions and crowding the statues in niches to either side. An island altar with the crucifix suspended above, in contrast, would have accommodated all these elements comfortably and would have allowed for a sarcophagus below the patron's statue as well. To place the Passion scenes in their proper sequence is relatively easy. This order follows the dramatic narrative in John — and in the Canonical Office. My analysis of the Passion cycle as a linear narrative, according to which the story unfolds sequentially, also argues for this arrangement see Chapter 5.

Determining the order of the Virtues in the Grimaldi Chapel, however, is problematic. The contract specified representations of the three theological virtues—faith, hope, and charity—and three, instead of the customary four, cardinal virtues: justice, fortitude, and prudence.

In the final execution, as we have seen, temperance was represented rather than prudence, which appeared elsewhere or perhaps in some other guise. In determining the specific location of each Virtue it would be helpful to discover a visual or textual tradition relating specific virtues to specific Passion scenes, but none exists. In the late Middle Ages there does seem to be a tradition associating patience with the scene of Christ Bearing the Cross patience being one aspect of fortitude in, for example, Saint Hildegard of Bingen's Liber Scivias , the Biblia Pauperum , and vernacular literature such as Chaucer's Parson's Tale.

One much later text links virtues and the Passion, but only in the most general way: the catechism, written consequent to the deliberations of the Council of Trent, says that Christ exhibited all the virtues in his Passion, namely, patience, humility, charity, meekness, obedience, and firmness of soul. In the rare instances when their representations are combined with the Passion in a single monument, there is no discernible pattern to the juxtaposition. On the original rood screen in Sainte-Waudru, Mons Fig. Passion scenes, but it is not possible to make specific connections. On some monuments the placement of the Virtues accords with their hierarchical importance, as on the Mons rood screen, where the three theological Virtues were above the four cardinal Virtues.

Charity held the honored central position at the top, for as Saint Paul, 1 Corinthians. Andrea Sansovino's twin tombs for the Sforza Fig. Below God the Father, Charity, in the form of the Madonna and Child , and Faith and Hope occupy the attic portion while Justice and Prudence , on the Sforza tomb, and Fortitude and Temperance , on the Basso tomb, stand in niches flanking the sarcophagus. For the Grimaldi Chapel, which had three walls, each with niches and a central image, the Virtues must have been grouped in pairs.

In proposing which Virtue stood in which niche, I have considered both design and theology, particularly the importance of faith, hope, and charity in church thought. The best placement for Fortitude —with her left hand extended, her right pulled back, and her torso turned slightly to her right—is to the spectator's left, whereas that for Justice is to the spectator's right. Hope Plate 2 , the active, and Temperance Plate 5 , the contemplative virtue, would have formed a complementary pair facing one another in the inner niches of the lateral walls.

Hope , her body tightly coiled with intense yearning, gazes up toward the source of salvation; her best placement is to the viewer's left.

Temperance , who can be viewed comfortably from any position, counterbalances the passion of Hope and fits well on the right wall of the chapel, to the spectator's right. Charity Plate 4 , as the first theological Virtue, should be near the altar, her design allowing for a wide range of viewpoints; these considerations place her securely on the altar wall. She could occupy either niche there. Her group, comprising three figures, is the most complex design of all the Virtues. Her pronounced contrapposto stance makes a place for one child in the hollow of her body, and the resulting turn of her head and shoulder to her right permits the other child to stand against her right leg.

Faith Plate 3 , as one of the theological virtues, makes a logical companion to Charity , and her contrapposto stance with her weight on her inside leg complements that of Charity , whose weight is also on her inside leg. To summarize my proposal: Fortitude to the left and Justice to the right at the entrance to. Using the reconstructed appearance of the Grimaldi Chapel I propose here Figs. The part played by the Virtues in the Grimaldi Chapel program—both their prominence and Giambologna's portrayal of them—merits attention.

As personifications of abstract concepts the Virtues embodied good works and were also intended to inspire a chain of associations in the penitent, who would presumably meditate on them to find the Christian path to eternal life. According to Catholic doctrine Christ's Passion connects the virtues and salvation.

Humankind's only hope for salvation lay in Christ's atonement at the Crucifixion. This he accomplished because he possessed every virtue and could therefore triumph over vice. Many medieval texts dealt with the virtues, typically pairing them with their corresponding vices. Christian preoccupation with salvation, both on the part of individuals and in official church circles, was not new to the sixteenth century but became more pronounced at the time of the Reformation. A major controversy between Catholics and Protestants concerned the means to achieve the salvation fervently sought by all.

Early in the century, in sermons, letters, and tracts, Martin Luther initiated the battle, declaring vehemently that salvation was attainable through faith alone, that is, through the passive acceptance of God's grace. While not denying the beneficial effects of good works during life, Luther nevertheless believed that individuals could not actively achieve their own salvation. Throughout the century the dispute continued, with learned men from both sides eloquently arguing their viewpoints. The Book of Regensburg of , an attempt to reconcile the opposing sides, failed.

The beginning of the Council of Trent in only gave official recognition to this irrevocable split.

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At the same time, movements within the Catholic church itself reaffirmed and strengthened just such traditional beliefs as the value of good works. The most influential of these resulted in the formation of the Society of Jesus, which was approved by Pope Paul III in ; in the reforming crusade of the Jesuits an active spiritual life, involving good works, figured heavily.

Ignatius of Loyola had worked out a whole program of religious exercises, published in as The Spiritual Exercises , so practical that all Christians could use them as a help to salvation. Good works are the outward manifestation of inner virtues, argue the Catholics. The presence in the Grimaldi Chapel of the Virtues as well as the Passion cycle reflects both the timely concerns of the Council of Trent, which renewed the medieval link between the virtues and Christ's Passion, and a long tradition in tomb iconography.

Although Virtues themselves are not remarkable in a funerary context, their combination with a Passion cycle, as I mentioned in Chapter 2, is highly unusual. Furthermore, they rarely appear as monumental, fully independent statues that happen to stand in niches, as in the Grimaldi Chapel. Two other instances, however, of the Virtues' appearing in a similar setting are the Del Monte Chapel in Rome of the early s Fig. In the Lercari Chapel the three theological Virtues plus Prudence flank paintings simulating sarcophagi with seated effigies.

As I have mentioned, Luca Grimaldi surely took note of this chapel belonging to a fellow aristocrat and prominently situated immediately adjacent to the choir of the Genoese cathedral. Luca Cambiaso's involvement included at least the statue of Prudence. By the end of the sixteenth century, the inclusion of Virtues in tomb monuments, though not as monumental freestanding statues, was a.

In Italy, from the late Middle Ages on, many tombs included Virtues, usually as under-life-size niche figures in wall tombs. Virtues are found as integral parts of the program on such royal tombs as those built in the fourteenth century for the Anjou family in Naples by Tino di Camaino. The custom of placing Virtues on the tombs of rulers, saints, and churchmen was not confined to Italy. Royal tombs in France and the Low Countries often included Virtues. Virtues continued to be a prominent feature of tomb programs in both Italy and northern Europe throughout the sixteenth century and well into the seventeenth.

While tradition may partially account for the Virtues in the Grimaldi Chapel, the doctrinal beliefs and practices codified at the Council of Trent relate more directly to their inclusion there. At the sixth session of the Council of Trent, in , virtues and the concept of good works figured prominently in the same decree on justification that stressed the Passion.

As I have already mentioned, the battle between Catholics and Protestants over what constituted justification was one of the most fiercely fought of the whole Reformation. The Protestants' belief in justification by faith, if allowed to take hold, would have undermined and abolished many of the basic practices of the Catholic church. The decree in which this was accomplished states that the presence of the virtues of faith, hope, and charity is one sign of a spiritual state worthy of justification:. Man through Jesus Christ, in whom he is ingrafted, receives in that justification, together with the remission of sins, all these infused at the same time, namely, faith, hope and charity.

For faith, unless hope and charity be. For which reason it is most truly said that faith without works is dead. Specifying the crucial role of virtues and good works in justification, the decree also states:. Having, therefore, been thus justified and made the friends and domestics of God, advancing from virtue to virtue, they are renewed, as the Apostle says, day by day, that is, mortifying the members of their flesh, and presenting them as instruments of justice unto sanctification, they, through the observance of the commandments of God and the Church, through faith cooperating with good works, increase in that justice received through grace of Christ and are further justified, as it is written: He that is just, let him be justified still; and, Be not afraid to be justified even unto death; and again, Do you see that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only?

Finally, elaborating on the importance of good works as concrete manifestations of virtue, the decree says:. Therefore, to men justified in this manner, whether they have preserved uninterruptedly the grace received or recovered it when lost, are to be pointed out the words of the Apostle: "Abound in every good work, knowing that your labor is not in vain in the Lord.

For God is not unjust, that he should forget your work, and the love which you have shown in his name"; and, "Do not lose your confidence, which hath great reward. In addition to its concern with justification, however, the council, at its fourteenth session, in , reaffirmed the sacrament of penance as necessary for salvation, a doctrine that had featured prominently at the Fourth Lateran Council in , a time when the church was also under pressure from heretical groups. Each communicant had to prepare to receive the sacrament of penance.

Preachers helping their congregations with this preparation used manuals of instruction that explicitly linked both the theological and the cardinal virtues to salvation. Promoting and elaborating on Tridentine decrees, in this case on the role of sacred images, Gabriele Paleotti, one of the leaders of the Catholic Reformation, declared that the representation of the virtues, which come from the perfection of the Christian life, was secondary only to the representation of religious and sacred things.

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Tridentine thought not only influenced the selection of the Passion cycle and determined the inclusion of Virtues in the Grimaldi Chapel but also provided a textual source, the catechism of , that joined these two elements:. In the Passion alone, we have the most illustrious example of the exercise of every virtue.

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Patience, and humility, and exalted charity, and meekness, and obedience, and unshaken firmness of soul not only in suffering for justice-sake, but also in meeting death, are so conspicuous in the suffering Saviour, that we may truly say, that, on the day of his Passion alone, he offered, in his own person, a living exemplification of all the moral precepts, which he inculcated during the entire time of his public ministry. This catechism, produced under the direct order of Pius V, was the first of its kind and served as the primer for communicants everywhere.

Its contents were to be memorized by all good Catholics. The relationship between the virtues and Christ's Passion that it suggests reveals the mode of thinking from which the Grimaldi program sprang, although it establishes no specific connection between individual virtues and events in the Passion story. Other sources from the Middle Ages similarly link the virtues with the Passion.

Saint Anselm, for example, said that the gifts of the Holy Spirit and the virtues emanating from them could not be attained by humankind except through the merits of Christ's Passion. Luca Grimaldi was attuned to this Tridentine spirit in giving prominent place to the Virtues in his chapel.

He might even have devised its program. A silver medal made in his honor attests to his intellectual accomplishments: on one side is his bust with "Lucas Grimaldi an. Their panegyric character does not diminish their usefulness as indicators of contemporary attitudes. They fall into the genre of epideictic rhetoric used for special public occasions such as funerals of eminent people and coronations. References to specific deeds and events in the person's life as well as to history were essential ingredients of this oratory; in such a context virtues figured heavily.

The orations of Boggiano and Negrone exhibit these characteristics. They praise Grimaldi as an exemplar, a man blessed with every virtue. And they invoke specific instances to demonstrate their points. Giovanni Giorgio Boggiano, who held doctorates in both philosophy and medicine, begins his oration in the Senate chamber by hailing the Republic of Genoa as a new Jerusalem, whose citizens enjoy liberty and, like their rulers, put the good of the Republic first.

The exemplary behavior exhibited by the Genoese, who care for the physical as well as the spiritual lives of all citizens, is manifest in tangible ways: in the many superb palaces, churches, and other public buildings of the city. Boggiano emphasizes the distinguished manner in which Grimaldi and his relatives and antecedents have served the Genoese republic. The rest of the oration enumerates and elaborates on Grimaldi's many virtues: humility, charity, courage, wisdom, justice, temperance, and piety.

To demonstrate his charity and courage Boggiano cites an example from the plague in , when Grimaldi, as commissioner of health, devoted all his energy to protecting those not stricken and healing those who fell ill. Justice, too, figures heavily in Boggiano's speech, which praises Grimaldi's prodigious talents in settling disputes, in public as well as in private, calling him "our Solomon. Giulio Negrone, the Jesuit who delivered the much longer oration in the cathedral the day after the coronation, devotes his entire speech to. The highest praise, however, goes to Grimaldi as patron of the chapel in San Francesco, for it demonstrates the depth of his faith and his magnificence, setting an example that stimulated other wealthy Genoese to construct chapels equally resplendent.

To match the splendor of the Grimaldi Chapel, however, would have been hard, if not impossible, for bronze, the medium of the Grimaldi sculptures, was highly prized and difficult to cast. No earlier chapels of comparable richness existed in Genoa. Only three even approached the sumptuousness of the Grimaldi: the fifteenth-century Chapel of Saint John the Baptist in the cathedral, commissioned by the city government rather than by a private patron; the main chapel in San Matteo, commissioned from Montorsoli by the Doria family in the s; and the Lercari Chapel Fig.

Negrone, frequently summoning the authority of Aristotle, treats at some length the elements both of justice, particularly its administration, and of temperance required for good government. He sees the doge, in all his actions carried out for the good of the Republic, as the "lieutenant of God. Many sources other than the orations link Luca Grimaldi's name to the chapel he built.

Genealogical records, chronicles, and guidebooks attest to its fame and leave no doubt that Grimaldi, though a man of distinguished civic accomplishments, preferred to be remembered as the pious and generous patron of the Chapel of the Holy Cross in San Francesco. As figural sculpture the Grimaldi Virtues represent a new genre in Giambologna's oeuvre.

Until this time, his female statues had been almost exclusively nude figures of the antique Venus type; exceptions include his Charity , modeled in stucco for the doorway of the retrochoir of Santissima Annunziata opposite Giambologna's future fu-. All his other religious statues were male figures. And as a balance to these qualities he found grace and ease of contrapposto in the work of the Sansovinos, Raphael, and Andrea del Sarto. For the major religious commission of the Grimaldi Chapel Giambologna adapted and modified his familiar elegant female type: the Virtues' faces are almost indistinguishable from one another, but the figures are individualized through posture, gesture, drapery, and attributes.

As in all his figural works, an imaginary spiral core of varying tautness, in harmony here with the character of each Virtue, operates as the motivating force. This is elaborated by the gestures and drapery of each figure. Thus Charity Plate 4 stands so as to enclose the rambunctious infant she holds on her left hip, while turning her head to her right to include the standing child who clings to her right hand and hip.

But Charity 's traits of magnanimity and abundance are best transmitted by her richly complex drapery, which falls smoothly to reveal her thighs, bunches up around her hips and pelvic area, and cuts a great swath over her right shoulder, falling in a wide cascade down her back. Hope 's Plate 2 feverish yearning is vividly conveyed not only by her clasped hands and upturned head but even more by the way the drapery on her right side seems swept up by some ineluctable force, all the more noticeable in contrast to that on her left side, which falls in relatively straight, undisturbed folds.

Portrayed as a young female warrior, unarmed but helmeted, Fortitude Plate 6 wears a short pleated skirt with the lion skin of Hercules thrown over her left shoulder. She stands in a relaxed contrapposto but alert to her environment. Justice Fig. But from her left side Justice appears the most static of the Virtues, holding her scales against her hip, with drapery falling in heavy layered folds from her shoulder to the floor. Plate 5 , the perfect embodiment of balance, is conceived in a relaxed contrapposto S curve, her ample drapery clinging to her breasts, stomach, and legs to reveal this stance.

Generous folds of drapery loop over her chest and shoulder, around her hips, and from her high waistband, falling in several tiers down her back. Although stately in mien, Giambologna's Temperance , by comparison with Cambiaso's severe, columnar Prudence in the Lercari Chapel Fig. Both statues are clearly inspired by classical precedents, but the ponderous contrapposto and heavy voluminous drapery of the Cambiaso create a severity markedly different from the suave, slender Grimaldi figure, whose drapery so clearly defines her posture and enhances the impression that even though a niche figure, she is freestanding.

Giambologna's statues, infused with a vitality that produces a vivid sense of each virtue, served as meditational aids. As personifications of complex abstractions, they mediated between the worshiper and the goal of salvation. Fortitude, for instance, was thought to include magnanimity, constancy, trust, confidence, patience, and perseverance.

The prayerful contemplation of the image of Fortitude not only brought courage to mind but activated the chain of its associated aspects; a series of meditational exercises enabled the worshiper eventually to reach the desired penitential state. Other paintings making similar use of this model could include his St. John Metropolitan Museum of Art , et al.

El Greco also references the crucifix in his unusual painting of Laocoon and his Sons. He relished in his literal and figurative foreignness and it is perhaps not so much that El Greco was just an unusual man with unique vision, but rather was the sum of all his parts. That is, his valiant beliefs in artistic theory and taste coupled with his pride and unconventional boldness coalesced against the backdrop of his experiences which began in the institutionalized methodology of icon painting and rapidly revealed an individuality manifest through the color of the Venetian school and perhaps the experimental Mannerism of Guglielmo.

Rosario Coppel : Guglielmo della Porta in Rome. El Greco in Italia. Metamorfosi di un genio. Skira, Milan, pp. See A. Donati : op. In addition to the crucifix Guglielmo delivered to Alessandro in , other objects were also provided to the Farnese family such as a group of secular statuary and busts purchased by Duke Ottavio Farnese in for the Farnese Palace. See R. Coppel : op. Guglielmo also drafted a proposal around to complete the Farnese Palace with an expansion to its gardens and loggia.

For a discussion on this topic see C. Dickerson : op. Both artists are also noted by contemporaries for the pride and dedication they took in their work. The remarkable way in which Cobaert finished bronzes to such detailed refinement might also suggest an obsession with perfectionism. El Greco joined the Roman painters guild on 18 September Penn State Press. Eike D. Getty Publications.


His annotations to Vitruvius and Vasari. Tokyo, Japan. Princeton University Press. The Burlington Magazine, No. London, UK, pp. Art in the Time of El Greco. The Burlington Magazine, vol. CXVI, August , pp.


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University of California Press, pp. Paragone, LIII, no. Signed by the author. Sheila Kaye-Smith. The author was an English novelist and Catholic convert. New York:Oxford University Press, Fulton J. Edited by Rev. Harry C. Undated; ca. Gabriel Francis Powers. Richard Cronin, Pastor. Mary Ann Crede Klebba, Editor. Westphalia, Lancelot C. Douglas Hyde. He eventually converted to Catholicism. Robert C. Nashville:Thomas Nelson Inc. Virginia Broderick. Small in-text illustrations by Virginia Broderick.

Gremillion, Joseph. Text is clean. DJ shows edgewear, small tear along bottom edge of front panel. Our Lady's Hours by Mary Ryan. Hardcover book, published Brother John E. Uncommon in dustjacket. Many black and white illustrations. Nigel Aston. An account of the state of the episcopacy during the French Revolution. John Anthony McGuckin, trans. The book is clean and tight. New York:P. Brian Moore. Inscribed by the author on the title page.

Charles Guignebert. A historical, critical study of Jesus. Walter Nigg. A hardcover book in very good condition with a like dustjacket. A few small rub marks on cover. Bookplate on front pastedown endpaper. Otherwise clean and tight.