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Aliens with decent homosexuals. There has a state living this Warning even also. Make more about Amazon Prime. Hamilton Thompson and C. Clay, Yorks. Record Series 85 - 43 ; iv, ed. Norah K. Gurney and C. His articles on the York dignitaries and archdeacons appeared in the Yorks.

His interest in the archdeacons was undoubtedly stimulated by the need to use them in dating his charters — the archdeacons of Richmond already figure in the introduction to volume iv. They raised many subtle problems, in which he revelled; but at the end of the day they had fixed, and sometimes short, terms of office, and were not all called William, so that they are valuable pillars of chronology. A human interest lights up the career of the Archdeacon Osbert, who was accused of murdering his archbish op and so retired into private life and re-entered the world of EYC as a minor baron; or of John aux Bellesmains, John of Canterbury, Treasurer of York, later bishop of Poitiers, and archbishop of Lyons, and a major figure in the French church.

Diana Greenway, a young scholar who enjoyed his guidance and help both in her work on Le Neve and in the Charters of the Honour of Mowbray. Margot Hebditch, later Mrs. It was characteristic of him that though he had his own highly individual manner of work, much of it was done in collaboration. Loyd had an exceptional knowledge of the documents and topography of Normandy, and great skill in feudal history and genealogy. Douglas and to the Stentons. For Loyd had no interest in publishing his work, and shared with Edmund Bishop a fastidious distaste for seeing his name in print.

At the time of its appearance he expressed concern to me how few younger scholars there were who could adequately describe armorial seals; and the whole range of the subject had great interest for him, as his early articles on the seals of Yorkshire revealed. Journal, xxxvi, ; for other references see A. Morey and C. Journal, xxxv. Record Series, , for Greenway herself has edited vols. Stanley Price succeeded him as Secretary when he became President of the Society in Publications, , ; and Oxford, , also issued as Northants. CHARLES CLAY, 15 was completing one of these papers he found, to his astonishment, a reference to an un- known book on the subject in a standard work of an earlier generation; hastening to the British Museum, he found it to be on aquatic, not heraldic, seals.

I wish I could have witnessed the discovery, for no man showed surprise more expressively. If he found an error in one of his own works, he behaved much I imagine as an eminent abbot confessing a fault in his chapter house, and the event was equally rare. But mounting honours and years— though age deprived him of his horse, and eventually of his tennis and golf— left him still essentially simple and modest, and a man of many friends.

It records his scholarship at Balliol and concludes : Excellent. I hope that he will read something worth reading in the holidays. In his later years there commonly lay on his desk one or two of the leaflets of obscure quotations with which those deeply learned in English literature puzzle their wits, and it was no uncommon event for him to capture a prize in these competitions.

I believe that in the many years that I have glanced over these puzzles with him I once, and once only, helped him to a solution he had missed; it was a good moment, a little like finding a mistake in the EYC. But he was indeed a man of many interests, in books, and china, and heraldry, and painting, and all manner of arts, and above all in people. He was a devotee of dining clubs, especially those with a learned flavour. In youth he was an ardent member of the Tykes, the Yorkshire Archaeological Society dining club which flourished before the First World War; in later years he was a Dilettante, and for over thirty years he enjoyed the company of the Cocked Hat Club, one of the dining clubs of the Society of Antiquaries.

He was in middle life an active Freemason. From the s the Roxburghe Club was among the societies closest to his heart, and in due course he made his own contribution to its publications, a facsimile of 60 For all these see Bibliography in Notes On the Family of Clere ; for the illuminated charter above, n.

Publications, xii , pt.

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In , as his eightieth birthday came and went, he noted down the list of committees from which he had not yet resigned. He was drawing towards the end of a long period of service on the two major committees of the Institute of Historical Research, the VCH Committee and that of the Institute itself: in earlier days his diary had recorded a sense that the older London history professors had little time for the amateur; I hope he had no similar cause for complaint when I sat with him on those two committees as a London professor in the late s.

Latterly he had had the added pleasure in the fact that his son-in-law, A. Maxwell-Hyslop, was the D. Assessor on the Committee from early until his retirement. He had a wide circle of friends, who appreciated his charm, his kindness, his readiness to help and serve where he could, the consistent good sense of his advice and the clarity and distinction of his mind; perhaps especially his lofty standards of conduct and courtesy. At the centre of it all lay his family, which grew up in the lofty Chelsea house in Tite Street — tall and slender, as was its owner, a house whose many flights of stairs were always a little baffling to a guest not as agile in arithmetic as he.

The Clays also had a house in Aston Tirrold on the Berkshire Downs, which they rented for many years and to which they could escape from the smoke of London, and, during the Second World War, from other in- conveniences. To Tite Street I repaired on many occasions in the s and s, to be greeted by Charles Clay in his study on the ground floor; then by Violet in the drawing room, a room full of their joint possessions, yet always radiating in a special way her cordial, friendly welcome, which made even a shy visitor instantly at ease. After dinner, in their later years at least, Lady Clay retired early, and we repaired again to the study, where he smoked the last of a carefully numbered ration of cigarettes, and we talked of our common interest and our common friends, both of the twelfth century and of the twentieth.

At other times, I know, the house was alive with the bustle of grandchildren, for Lady Clay was a dedicated grandmother. Of his three daughters, Diana died, to his great sorrow, not long before he did; Rachel Maxwell-Hyslop, the eldest, a distinguished expert on the archaeology and art of the middle east, for many years Lecturer in Western Asiatic Archaeology at the Institute of Archaeology of the University of London, continues the apostolic succession of the Clays among the Fellows of the Antiquaries; and Rosemary Howarth, the youngest, formerly a student, and long a part-time member of the staff, of the Courtauld Institute, has long shared his interest in the history of art.

He remained active and agile far beyond most men s span; and even in his eighties could occasionally impress and alarm his friends by unfolding his long figure, and immaculate umbrella, from the top of a double-decker bus. But he was none the less aware of the passage of time.


It is perhaps significant that EYC, x, with its air ot finality, came out in the year he reached 70; EYC, xii, his swansong, as he became As each volume appeared, one looked forward with assurance and eagerness to the next, and such a suggestion always brought from him a smile of appreciation instantly followed by a slight deprecatory frown, a modest statement of uncertainty, which left one with a definite impression that it would be unwise to lay money on the event — though his friends had some difficulty in simulating surprise when news came soon after of the progress of Trussebut or Percy or whomsoever it CHARLES CLAY, 17 might be.

He was always anxious, however, not to carry on after his powers had begun to fail, and this was the essential reason why he laid down his baton when he was eighty. Even then, he continued to work and to write; and his final study of Yorkshire Families , happily embellished with a collection of documents edited by Dr. Greenway, was a fitting end to the series of his books. In , when Lady Clay was finding a vertical house beyond her strength, they moved to a spacious flat in Kensington, all on one floor, which could still house most of his books, and where the old life carried on for a time.

It also brought both of them an invitation to lunch in the ancient cottage on the Sussex border where Dom David Knowles spent his last years; for between Charles Clay and David Knowles long acquaintance fostered by many common interests in literature as well as history matured into warm friendship in these years. But, soon after, her health failed again, and she died on 25 June. Her death left a gap which could not be filled; but in other ways he carried on as before, slowly reducing his commitments. Until he was well over 90 he was able to live on in the flat, frequently visited by a devoted family, often sallying forth to visit them.

In the event, it proved a brief coda : after four weeks he was moved into Oxford for an emergency operation from which he never recovered, and he died a week later on 3 1 January , in his 93rd year. Yet the real denouement had come earlier, in July , at a happy dinner party splendidly arranged by Mrs. Stanley Price to celebrate his ninetieth birthday. To it came representa- tives of his world: of his family, of his friends, his fellow historians and fellow antiquaries, and they presented him with two gifts : first a small volume of appreciation, with a biblio- graphy of his works and a characteristic paper of his own, Notes on The Family of Clere , edited by Mrs.

Stanley Price, offered on our behalf in a speech of congratulation by the President of the Antiquaries, Dr. Myres, FBA; and also a personal gift by our hostess, of armorial china embellished with his own arms. That is how his friends and colleagues will remember him. This notice is a token of affection, gratitude, and admiration to a friend, based largely on personal knowledge and long acquaintance with his writings; also in a measure on a lecture I gave in at a celebration arranged by the Yorkshire Archaeological Society to mark the sixtieth anniversary of his membership ; and a brief appreciation in Notes on The Family of Clere, by Sir Charles Clay, with a Bibliography of his writings, which was pre- sented to him by his friends on his ninetieth birthday in In that appreciation, as here, I was greatly indebted to Mrs.

Stanley Price and Dr. Christopher Dobson, and Dr. Rosalind Brooke. My knowledge of his early life has been transformed and my task greatly eased by the kind 63 , p. Rachel Maxwell-Hyslop and Mrs. Rosemary Howarth. Maxwell-Hyslop generously placed at my disposal her collection of his papers, letters, etc. The reminiscences are fundamental sources for my text, and I am especially grateful for her permission to quote extensively from them. The first, dated 'Aug. This was excessively, though characteristically, modest; yet a happy thought to which I am deeply indebted.

Farrer, Edinburgh, , index to vols. Clay and Edith M. Clay, Yorkshire Arch. Record Series, Extra Series, iv, ; vols. Record Series, Extra Series, i-iii, v-x, The Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, Vol. Manby Summary Excavation of three plough degraded barrow sites. Barrow I had a central pit and the adjacent pre-barrow soil contained a flint industry and pottery of Towthorpe and Grooved Ware styles. It had an inner rectangular ditch and a later outer ditch with causeways.

Barrow 2 was square-ditched with a central grave excavated in the mid- nineteenth century, identified with the excavation of Edward Tindall. Barrow 3 had a central hengiform structure of Neolithic date surrounded by a linked quarry-pit ditch, with Peterborough style pottery at the base of the secondary silting. The project was initiated by an invitation from John Thompson ofEast Leys who was concerned at the levelling of Grindale Barrows i and 2 by modern cultivation methods. The occasion was taken to investigate a third barrow site in the adjoining parish of Boynton. Acknowledgements : The writer wishes to record his indebtedness to Mr.

John Thompson of East Leys and Mr. Ernest Hood of High Easton for making the sites available for excavation and undertaking the fdling in. The supervision of Barrow 2 was undertaken byjohn Wilson and Barrow 3 by J. Thanks must be recorded to those members of the Pre- history Research Section, and the many volunteers, who participated in the excavation. Special mention must be made of Mrs. Hartley, Miss L. Savory and B.

Thompson, Librarian-Curator for the Borough of Bridlington, arranged various local services. Geophysical survey work was undertaken by A. Aspinall and J. Pocock of the University of Bradford. Radiocarbon dates were provided by R. Details of some local cropmark features were kindly provided by H. Ramm and air photographs of the area were taken by D. Archaeological Background The three round barrows under consideration survived as field monuments until the second half of the present century, but were once part of a concentration of archaeological sites that were the victims of medieval and nineteenth century cultivation Fig.

Barrow 1, in Grindale parish and directly south ofEast Leys Farm, was recorded by Robert Knox on his map of the Scarborough district in , but it does not appear on the first edition of the O. Map of However, Barrow 2 in Grindale parish and Barrow 3 in Boynton parish were not recorded by Knox but the latter appears on the O. The barrows are all situated on the level wold top flanking the same dry valley. The geology of the area is a flintless Upper Chalk as the natural bedrock, its surface cryoturbated by periglacial frost action to a depth of some 70 cms.

A reddish-brown clay covers the surface of the chalk and survives in varying thickness beneath the cultivated topsoil. However, to the northwest, above the feet contour, the chalk is mantled by glacial drift in increasing thickness to the morainic ridge that follows the edge of the coastal cliffs. Geological Assoc. Location Map B. Based on O. Map A ring ditch appears in the field south of North Dale Farm Nat. Grid ref. TA ; another is in Easton High Field, southeast of Barrow 3, where the mound appears as a soilmark TA adjoining a rectangular enclosure.

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More numerous are small square-ditched barrow sites and our Barrow 2 is the largest and most easterly of a scatter of 17 of these sites across the field west towards Barrow i. A second cemetery of over squares and pits has been photographed by D. Cropmarks also define areas of enclosures ; a complex of rectangular enclosures flank a ditched trackway west of East Leys. In this area a stone floor was exposed by cultivation at TA in , associated with Romano-British pottery.

However, the less well defined nature of the square ditches inside the field block, compared with those outside the enclosures to the north, has been used to advocate a later date for the field system. Barrow 3, in the High Field of the shrunken village of Easton was distant from the traditional arable land of the village situated on the floor of the Great Wold Valley. The intensity of Neolithic and Bronze Age activity around the three barrows excavated in is indicated by surface finds of flint implements and waste, especially scrapers, knives and arrowheads ; also stone axe fragments.

Earlier occupation is indicated by occasional mesolithic flints including microliths, more recent activity by sherds of Romano-British and medieval pottery material collected from the surface by J. Earnshaw andj. Wilson in Sewerby Hall Museum, also material in private hands. This mound was the meeting place for one of three hundreds that formed the Domesday Wapentake of Dickering. In the eighteenth-century Huntow was the 2 Ramm, H. The most obvious claimant to the name is the largest of the two mounds that remain to the north of East Huntow TA in Bridlington parish Fig.

This is still a mound of impressive size, the parish boundary between Brid- lington and Bempton is aligned onto it, and its situation commands the countryside round- about.


Barrow 3 is also the focus of boundaries, but of townships, as Grindale and Easton were in Bridlington parish until and respectively. These were purchased by Sir John Evans and are now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford; they consist of a long brooch with flattened bow and two penannular brooches. Wright, M.

On the higher ground to the north of Bridlington is a village called Hunton sic , near which is a continuous embankment, extending across several fields and enclosing an oblong space. Within this are many pit-formed hollows in the ground, and a number of large barrows scattered about appear to indicate a primeval cemetery. Its position is exactly such a one as the early inhabitants of our island were accustomed to choose for that purpose. Five of these barrows have recently been opened by Mr. Edward Tindal sic , of Bridlington. In the first at a depth of 2 feet from the top, the remains of two skeletons were found among burnt earth and a little charcoal.

Several chips of flint were picked up, but no other objects of interest. At a short distance are two other mounds in a field belonging to Mr. In these the chalk rock had been first uncovered and hollowed into the form of a bowl, 18 inches deep and 9 feet in diameter. The bodies were placed in this receptacle, and the bowl was filled with fine mould, and above this was raised the tumulus formed of large chalk- stones covered over, when finished, with a coating of rubble and fine soil. No human remains were found, but a considerable quantity of bones of carnivorous and ruminating animals, and three articles in bronze, one of them a fibulae, of rather unusual form.

In the third barrow, which closely resembled the last, nothing was found except a few fragements of bones, some charcoal, and a quantity of dark-coloured, fatty earth, and four flint implements. The fourth barrow opened by Mr. Tindal sic was nearly 40 yards in circumference. In this was found two urns of slightly-baked earth, containing some pieces of leather and a quantity of hair. These were placed in hollows made in the chalk for their reception, and were covered by a flat piece of flagstone on one, and piece of chalk on the other.

From the cut and jagged edges of the leather, it was probable that it had belonged to some ornamental part of the dress. The fifth tumulus was similar to those already described. Several urns are described which have been discovered by Mr. Tindal and Mr. Cape, also of Bridlington in the exploration of other mounds. Edward Tindall. Five of them had been opened in the neighbourhood, and previously described by Mr.

In October, , in conjunction with Captain Collison, Mr. Tindall commenced his investigations. The tumulus 8 V. East Riding II, p. Stead, I. Geological and Polytechnic Soc. Grindale Barrow 1. General view from the south-east. Plate 2. Central Pit. It is about ioo yards in circumference and 9 feet high. On approaching the centre of the tumulus by means of a trench, a quantity of flint chippings were discovered, amongst which occurred one or two examples of arrowheads. In the centre of the tumulus was a human skeleton. Between the jaws of the skull was found a leaf-shaped arrowhead, which appeared to have entered the back of the head and passed forward to the mouth.

On the surface of the chalk surrounding this trench were twelve circular holes, about 9 inches in diameter and 12 inches deep in which were deposited calcined bones and particles of charcoal. The purpose of this peculiar feature could not be conjectured, they may have either served to have received the ashes of sacrifice at the death of the occupant of the central cist, or may have been food offerings.

An urn was found near the skeleton, it was broken, but it had contained ashes and a small quantity of burned earth. The reference to two mounds in the field belong to Y. However sites now only known as cropmark ring ditches probably appeared as mounds in The mound appeared as a gentle rise, 25 m in diameter and 45 cm. When the mound was examined after fresh ploughing in the autumn of a ring of burnt soil and chalk rubble had been noted on surface half-way up the profile.

The Mound Cultivation had removed all the mound material except for a small patch of chalk fragments, about 1 m in diameter west of the Central Pit Fig. Section X. The Pre-mound Soil Cultivation had also removed the pre-barrow soil over most of the site down to the tops of the ridged surface of the underlaying frost fractured natural chalk Pi. Only in the area immediately west of the central pit did this soil remain to its full depth. This was a reddish brown soil with a continuous iron-pan layer at a depth of 10 cms Fig.

Below the pan the soil was darker and passed into clay filling the bottom of the hollows. The profile resembled that of the pre-mound soil at the Kilham long barrow where the upper Eb horizon was separated by an iron-humus pan from lower Bt soil. An extensive flint industry was recovered from the pre-barrow soil but it was obvious that the truncation of this layer by the plough had transferred much of the archaeological content to the top soil.

Flints were recovered both above and below the iron pan layer and sherds of Neolithic pottery were found above the pan in Trench NW2. Central Pit The only feature within the enclosing ditches was an elongated pit of irregular outline Fig. The lower fill consisted of small chalk 16 Ibid. Grindale Barrow 1, plan. Angular chalk in brown soil was the uppermost layer; this produced the only finds from the pit, a weathered bone fragment, 14 flint flakes and a scatter of charcoal flecks.

Phase 1 Ditch The inner ditch enclosed an area roughly rectangular in shape, 15 m east to west and 12 m north to south, the angular plan was most marked at the eastern end. The walls of the ditch had been cut vertically down into the solid chalk to a flat floor at a depth of to m. The lips had weathered back but the lower walls retained their vertical faces slightly weathered Pi. The ditch filling consisted of Fig. Secondary Silt — Brown soil and chalk gravel followed by clean weathered chalk inter- leaved with brown soil.

This formed a stable surface that was continuous in places where it remained with the pre-mound soil. The charcoal layer had burnt soil and chalk resting on it, only rarely had the burning effected the filling underneath Fig. The charcoal layer was absent in the N. The burnt layer was covered by a layer of large angular chalk blocks and rubble Pi. The charcoal layer resulted from the collapse into the ditch hollow of some sort of timber structure, backed by chalk rubble and soil, from the inner side of the ditch.

Careful excava- tion in the south-east quadrant, and the planning of all pieces of charcoal failed to recognise any structural elements other than a vague radial alignment. Rounded branches of oak without any trace of squared timbers were apparent. Finds from the ditch were few ; the most significant was a large beam fragment of red deer antler resting in marl on the floor in Section N Pi. Two samples of the charcoal layer provided dates of off;90 B.

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HAR and offi20 b. The ditch had silted up rapidly at first as the lips weathered back, and then filled slowly to a shallow hollow. The depth of silting and the order of the C14 dates indicate the burnt feature belonged to a later phase of activity long removed in time from the digging of the inner ditch. Phase 2 Ditch The outer ditch enclosed an oval area 26 m east to west and 24 m north to south. The circuit was broken by two causeways, of which that on the west was 2 m in width.

The gully sides were Plate 3. Inner Ditch, antler fragment on the floor. Plate 5. Grindale Barrow i, pottery and flints. The ditch had generally vertical sides below the weathered lips, varying in width from 2 to 3 m down to a flat, in places stepped, floor to 1 m in depth. The splay of the lips was too wide to be the result of erosion alone. The siltings of the outer ditch contrasted with that of the inner in a greater preponderance of soil:— Primary Silt — Angular chalk fragments and marl lay in the wall angles and over the floor.

At the centre was loose, clean chalk with patches of reddish-brown soil. This was succeeded by chalk gravel and except on the northern side this had an increasing soil content upwards. Secondary Silt — A thick layer of reddish brown soil with a marked prismatic structure was de-calcified except for a scatter of eroded chalk pellets in the top 20 to 30 cm. The primary silts were largely devoid of finds, only an occasional flint flake or a scrap of bone.

The secondary silt contained an extensive flint industry scattered throughout its depth. A few sherds of Neolithic and Beaker pottery came from the base of the soil or resting on the wall slope. Weathered sherds of Romano-British pottery and minute pieces of bronze were found in the top 20 cm of the secondary silt and immediately below the modern topsoil. These consisted of plain weathered sherds of a calcite-gritted fabric, the majority belonging to a small bowl in the Neolithic Towthorpe style Manby , 1.

The surfaces are deeply pitted due to the solution of the gritting agent. A second vessel was represented by two groups of unweathered sherds that joined to form a rim Fig. The exterior has well moulded ribs, horizontal and diagonal; traces of a carbon layer remain over the interior. Some seven small sherds and crumbs were recovered from the Inner Ditch in NEi and 2 in soil immediately below the burnt layer. These are all plain fabrics; calcite grit remains in one and the largest sherd has a laminated structure and pieces of shell Non-fossil as a tempering agent.

The few characteristics point to a Neolithic date for these. From the Outer Ditch Neolithic pottery came from the brown soil of the secondary silt. A weathered rim in Towthorpe style Fig. Crushed Beaker fragments were found on the inner slope of the ditch at locations in SW 1 Fig. All were in a reddish-brown stone-gritted fabric with comb-impressed decoration; at least two vessels are represented. These consisted of a small sherd of weathered rusticated ware, 23 sherds and crumbs of light grey fabric including pieces from the rim and neck of a beaker, and a handle springing of a red ware flagon.

Flint Industry Stratified flints were confined to the central pit and the pre-mound soil. Flints from the uppermost soil silting of the Inner Ditch and the secondary silt of the Outer Ditch can be regarded as derived by weather processes from the adjacent pre-mound soil layer.

Flint work from the central pit consisted of three primary flakes, a core rejuvenation flake, nine small flakes and a blade segment. The material was mottled brown flint patinated grey-blue. The pre-mound soil contained large quantities of flint waste wherever it remained, especially in the small area of intact profile west of the central pit.

Mottled brown flint was the predominant raw material, patinated variously from a dense white to a bluish- white mottle, patches of brown skin and some battered cortex remained on primary flakes. Pink flint accounted for only six pieces and the most rare material was a brown chalcedonic flint represented by a flake each from SW2 and NW2.

Burnt flint accounted for only ten pieces. Cores were generally rough of irregular or multi-platformed shapes but one-sided cores occurred Fig. A struck tortoise core Fig- 4 - 9 illustrates the source of the small number of broad flakes displaying prepared striking platforms. This flake shows the narrow flake facets of the platform preparation on its butt. These broad flakes were used for a broken long scraper Fig. A long scraper retouched around the end and down the side came from the western causeway of the Outer Ditch.

The total of tools from the pre-mound soil is completed by a serrated-edged blade Fig. Grindale Barrow i, Central pit. Flints were scattered throughout the depth of the secondary silt in the Outer Ditch, including the upper portion where Romano-British pottery occurred. The flints had arrived in the ditch with the soil silting and culturally included Mesolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age tool forms. The earlier material are a Mesolithic Microlith, scrapers and an angle graver Fig. These four pieces are all flint with a dense white patina but the majority of flints are brown with varying patination, only 48 pieces of pink flint are present and there are 70 pieces of burnt and fire crackled flint.

The waste has the same general character as that from the pre-mound soil; cores are irregular except for 12 of tortoise type. Tools from the ditch silting are scrapers including a long triangular scraper of exceptional quality Fig. Amongst the knives was a broad flake knife retouched along both edges Fig.

A large petit tranchet flake is broken Fig. It appeared as a slight rise 15 cm high and apparently 22 m in diameter, the position of the enclosing ditch being marked by laid corn. Grindale Barrow 2, plan. The Mound The mound had been completely removed by cultivation except for a small patch of compact chalk rubble on the southern edge of the grave Pi. This patch and the chalk rubble blocks contained in the top soil, and filling the grave and the nineteenth century excavation slots in the pre-barrow soil, demonstrated that the last remaining mound material consisted of large chalk rubble.

The Pre-mound Soil A reddish brown soil covered the surface of the natural chalk which was ridged and fractured by periglacial frost action ; this soil thinned-out towards the edges of the enclosing ditch but had only been removed by cultivation in the extreme south-eastern corner. The only cultural material recovered from this soil layer, and the pre-mound surface, was a small flint industry of cores and flakes. Grindale Barrow 2, 19th Century Excavation. The Nineteenth Century Excavation Fig. Some slots ran into each other and others enclosed roughly square areas.

It was noted that many were just the width of a modern spade and it was evident that they represented an attempt to probe the soil layer in search of features in the underlying natural chalk. This system of slots ran into the eastern side of the grave and merged with its chalk rubble filling. Most of the grave had been explored down to the floor and two minor cuts had been made southwards and into the south-western corner to a depth of 30 cm below the surface.

The sides were roughly vertical and the floor flat leaving ledges and the deeper tringular slot at the centre. Patches of the original grave infilling remained against the walls ; 1 5 to 20 cm of this survived between the nineteenth century excavation and the western wall of the grave. In the south-eastern comer of the grave a heap of chalk blocks was embedded in the dark grey soil, undisturbed by the earlier excava- tion. Under these blocks was the com the eastern wall of the grave. The grave had been infilled with large chalk rubble blocks, loosely packed, with fine dark grey soil and occasional lumps of brown soil.

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Throughout this filling were fragments of animal bone ; of nineteenth century date were a piece of a blue and white glazed plate and a fragment of brick. Grindale Barrow 2, ditch sections. The primary silting of the ditch Fig. The secondary silting was a thick layer of reddish brown clay soil, as much as m in depth and its upper edge merging into the pre-mound soil in places. An extensive flint industry was recovered from this thick brown soil layer but widely scattered around the circuit.

On the eastern and western sides of the ditch only a layer of brown soil with small rounded chalk fragments, clearly old cultivation soil, lay between the reddish brown soil and the modem top soil. In the north ditch an intervening deposit of brown soil and gravel spread southwards partially across the ditch ; in this were small sherds of medieval pottery. A layer with a higher gravel content occurred in the same position in the south ditch spreading from the interior of the ditched area.

Grindale Barrow 2. General view from the East. Plate 7. Grave cleared, chalk rubble fills the 19th century excavation slots in the pre- mound soil. Bramwell The complete skeleton of a young pig, about six months of age, came from the corner of the grave. The burnt clay bullae, arrowheads, and large amounts of ashes support the burning of the city by fire around B. An ancient escape tunnel and what may be Nehemiah's Wall have also been discovered at the site.

In a piece of pottery with a mysterious inscription discovered by Mazar, known as the Ophel Inscription, was deciphered, revealing it to be the earliest undisputed use of the Hebrew alphabet in Jerusalem. It is dated to around B. From BibleStrength. Biblical Archaeology Society. Institute for Creation Research. Holden, Joseph M. The Popular Handbook of Archaeology and the Bible. Harvest House Publishers. Wieland, Carl. Archaeologist Confirms Creation and the Bible. Creation Ministries International. Sala, Harold J. Elwell, Walter A. Tyndale Bible Dictionary. Tyndale House Publishers.

Truman G. Milano, Luciano. Ebla Digital Archives. Ca' Foscari University of Venice. The Schoyen Collection.

Free Magazine The Biblical Archaeologist Vol 21 No 4

Andrews, Evan , December The History Channel. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Law Code of Eshunna. Iraq National Museum. Yaron, Reuven The Laws of Eshnunna. The Magnes Press. The Hebrew University. Chaffey, Tim , January Biblical Archaeology. Tenney, Merrill C. The Zondervan Encyclopedia of the Bible.

Laughlin, John C. Archaeology and the Bible. American Historical Association. Rummell, S. The Hammurabi Stele. Texas Wesleyan University. Claire, Iselin. Law Code of Hammurabi, king of Babylon. Louvre Museum. British Museum. The Epic of Gilgamesh. Livingston, Dave. Who Was Nimrod? New York University Press. Livingston, David Israel's Origins. Down, Kendall K. The Shasu of Yahweh. Digging Up the Past. Alexander, T. InterVarsity Press. ISBN: Associates for Biblical Research. Argubright, John Tyre and the Tell El-Amarna Tablets. Orr, James, M. General Editor. Biblical Archaeology Review.

Ipuwer Papyrus. Christian Evidences Ministries. Becher, M. Ohr Somayach Tanenbaum College. Gardiner, Alan H. The Admonitions of an Eygptian Sage. Quartz Hill School of Theology. West Semitic Research Project. University of South Carolina. Pardee, Dennis Ugarit Ritual Texts. Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

Hess, Richard S. Denver Seminary. Languages: Ugaritic. Institute for Biblical and Scientific Studies.

Biblical Archaeology: Eden

What has archaeology taught us about the origins of Israel? Byers, Gary , March Merneptah Stele. Egypt: Merenptah's Victory Stele. Tour Egypt. David, A. Jarus, A. Fisher-Ilan, Allyn , November Goliath's Name Found in Archaeological Dig. Maeir, Aren M. Biblical Archaeological Society. Lipsom, Joshua , July Gath Goes Beyond Goliath. The Jerusalem Post. Bogursky, Sasha , July An Inscribed Pithos from the Ophel, Jerusalem. Israel Exploration Journal 63 1.

Petrovich, Douglas , August Boyle, Alan , July NBC News. Ngo, Robin , May 9. Bubastite Portal. University of California. Did Pharaoh Sheshonq Attack Jerusalem? Gezer Almanac. Hebrew Alphabet. Geva, Hillel. Jewish Virtual Library. Hillel, Daniel The Natural History of the Bible. Columbia University Press. Peeters Publishers and Department of Oriental Studies. Hanson, K. Associates for Biblical Archaeology. Biblical Archaeology Society Staff , October Block, Daniel I.

Israel: Ancient Kingdom or Late Invention? BAR Museum of Antiquities. University of Saskatchewan. Butterfeld, Bruce J. Marquette University. McClister, David , January 4. Truth Magazine. Israelite Kings in Assyrian Inscriptions. Douglas, J. Zondervan Illustrated Bible Dictionary. Mesha Stele. Caubet, Annie. The Mesha Stele. Wood, Bryant G. What does the Moabite Stone reveal about the Biblical revolt of Mesha? Oded, Bustany Encyclopedia Judaica.

Bible History Online. Ministry Magazine. Bible Believer's Archaeology, Vol.